French Furniture, The Style We Call Louis XV

The French furniture style we call Louis XV flourished during the period of 1730-1775. If the Louis XIV furniture style was designed with the glorification of the Sun King in mind and all in massive, masculine, square form, the Louis XV furniture style is the complete opposite. Designed for the comfort and glorification of beautiful women, it has a romantic, sensuous and feminine look. A flowing abstraction of unbroken curves is the guiding principle of the Louis XV furniture style; the legs are curved, the back is curved and the seat is curved. Even the Louis XV architecture also adheres to this principle. It abhorred straight lines. In typical Louis XV architecture everything is curved - the ceiling, the panel-designs on the walls, the panel designs in the doors and even the corners of a room are curved.

The Louis XV style is sometimes referred to as the Rococo Style. It is derived from two French words meaning rock and shell. The rock and shell were the two popular motifs for decoration of this period. The Rococo style features extensive and elaborate ornamentation and decoration. It was also during this period that France was captivated with things Chinese. This fascination with Chinese motifs was called Chinoiserie. A newly discovered Chinese method of painting called Lacquering was usually used in painting wood furniture. Fabrics and wall coverings were designed with Chinese motifs as well. It is therefore not uncommon to find some Louis XV furniture style bearing this Chinese influence.


The Basic Characteristics of a Louis XV style of furniture are:

French Furniture, The Style We Call Louis XV

1. Curved shapes and forms. This period abhorred anything straight.

2. It bears an extensive rococo decoration. Everything is elaborately decorated with intricate carvings. Wood surfaces are decorated with Inlays, ormolu mounts and hand painted. With the cockleshell design as the point of focus.

3. Romantic Imagery is usually reflected in its motifs. This was a period of romance of Du Barry and Madame Pompadour. Images of love such as cupid and his arrow are often reflected in the designs. Shepherdess's hat and basket, fishing and hunting scenes, violin or horn and other musical motifs, bouquets and other pastoral scenes are very common design elements during this period.

4. This period designed everything with an eye toward lightness and grace. Delicacy is its guiding spirit. Scale is delicate too as opposed to the very massive previous style of Louis XIV. It is smaller, softer and more comfortable.

5. Since it has become smaller and delicate in size, the need for stretchers to support the legs is eliminated.

In conclusion, the style of Louis XV is commonly used in today's homes. Its delicate shape and size is very practical and it has both the scale and grace that are the objective in most decoration today. It is in fact one of the favorites among designers and homeowners alike when decorating traditional homes.

French Furniture, The Style We Call Louis XV

Michael Russell Your Independent guide to Furniture []

The Meaning of Plastic Recycling Symbols

Plastic plays a crucial part in our current society. It's everywhere - the most common material used to make products for our convenience - containers, cell phone casing, plastic bags, etc. Have you ever thought, for a moment, about the meaning of those symbols found in your plastic-made items?

Plastic recycling symbols show the forms of resin used to create the material. These representations are established following the international Plastic Coding System, and are customarily delineated as a number (from 1 through 7) enclosed by a triangle or a plain triangular loop (also known as the Mobius loop), with an acronym of the specific material used, right underneath the loop.


Here are succinct descriptions of each of the 7 recycling symbols frequently used, today:

The Meaning of Plastic Recycling Symbols

1 - PET or PETE (Polyethylene Terephalate Ethylene)

Light weight, low-priced, and easy to fabricate, Polyethylene Terephalate Ethylene is the most prevalent plastic material in use today. PET is primarily used in beverage bottles, food receptacles, and peanut butter containers. It can be remade into polar fleece, fiber, carpet, etc. The requirement for this plastic among recyclers is relatively strong, but at present, the recycling rate for this material has remained low at 20%.

2 - HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)

High Density Polyethylene is more durable and more impervious to chemical degeneration, this material poses a relatively low chance of spreading chemicals when used as container for food and drinks. It is largely used as containers for everyday household chemicals (shampoos, degreasers, etc.), juice bottles, milk jugs, etc. This can be reused into floor tile, drainage, new HDPE bottles, pipes, etc.

3 - PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride)

PVC has been tagged as a health hazard - it has been noted to typically drain chemicals when used as containers. PVC is mainly used for piping, window cleaner bottles, siding, etc. It has chlorine and will dispense toxins if burned. PVC should not be used in food preparation or food packaging. It can be reprocessed into mudflaps, panels, mats, etc.

4 - LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene )

LDPE is the material present in plastic bags, clothing, furnitures, etc. Resilient and flexible, it is perfect for packaging, insulation, and sealing. LDPE, through many curbside recycling programs, can be reconstituted into cans, compost bins, and landscaping tiles.

5 - PP (Polypropylene)

Polypropylene is most suited for boiling fluid receptacles and is likewise made into brooms, straws, ketchup bottles, etc. PP can be reprocessed into rakes, brooms, trays, etc.

6 - PS (Polystyrene)

PS is the top component for insulation and is used in foam products like expanded polystyrene (EPS), commonly known as styrofoam. It is found in carry-out food containers, meat trays, CD cases. PS contains benzene, a cancer-causing substance and should not be burned. It is reprocessed into insulation, packaging, plant beds, etc.

7 - OTHER (Polycarbonate)

Recycling symbol 7 - OTHER signifies materials not belonging to any of the other 6 resin categories. OTHER may also signify a hybrid resin made up of a mishmash of those materials. It is mainly found in children feeding bottles, flak jackets, business signages, five-gallon water jugs, etc. It can be recycled into plastic planks and other tailor-made objects.

Not all number 7 plastics are polycarbonate, a handful are even plant-based. Polycarbonate has become the axis of dispute in recent years, as it is discovered to leach BPA (bisphenol A), a hormonal disruptor that may disastrously influence gestation and fetal growth.

Plastic recycling symbols are designed essentially to help the staff in recycling plants in properly segregating materials for processing. A rudimentary knowledge of these icons can also help us in ascertaining if the plastic item were handling at home are risk-free for us and our children.

The Meaning of Plastic Recycling Symbols

Michael Arms contributes articles the Pacebutler Recycling and Environmental blog. Pacebutler Corporation of Edmond, Oklahoma is a US trading company that pays cash for cell phones, in an online transaction. If you just want to dispose of your old cell phones in an environmentally-friendly manner, you may also recycle cell phones through Pacebutler.

Shaker Furniture Plans - How to Build Your Own Shaker Style Furniture With DIY Furniture Plans

The Shaker ladder back chair is probably the most widely recognized pieces of furniture around and has been copied by other craftsmen since the originals were first marketed by the Shakers in the late 18th century.

There are collections of Shaker furniture in many museums in the USA and England, where they appeal to the modern eye and traditionalists alike. They weren't all hand made either - the shakers were adept at using the best technology of the day and in fact invented the circular saw blade, a tool that we take for granted today.


Its not that hard to own your own piece of shaker style furniture, however few of us could afford the originals today even if they were for sale. But you will be amazed how simple it is to build your own Shaker furniture by using a well thought out set of woodworking plans.

Shaker Furniture Plans - How to Build Your Own Shaker Style Furniture With DIY Furniture Plans

You probably have many of the tools and materials needed already, also the rest of what you need can be got easily at your local lumber yard or home improvement store.

One of the most important aspects of making your own shaker furniture is to use a good set of professionally prepared Shaker furniture plans. For the best chance of success, these plans should contain:

1) Blueprints & Instructions - It's critical to your success to get plans that have detailed blueprints and good clear written instructions. It's a lot easier to follow along a step by step guide and know what to do, referring to the drawings along the way. Some of the better sets even have videos.

2) A Complete Materials list - It's most frustrating to find halfway through a project that you have to go off to the store to get that little piece not mentioned before. Having a complete bill of materials will save a lot of time and ensure you have everything you need at the start.

I've seen far too many poorly put together sets of plans that have neither good easy to follow drawings or detailed materials lists. It's not a plan for success but a recipe for disaster!

Shaker Furniture Plans - How to Build Your Own Shaker Style Furniture With DIY Furniture Plans

You will get the utmost of satisfaction from your Shaker furniture plans if you are able to complete your project without major dramas. The Shakers made their furniture with the utmost of care, the act of making being an act of prayer. Give yourself the best chance yourself by using professionally prepared plans with detailed drawings and a complete bill of materials like those found at Easy Furniture plans. You will find all that you need to make a piece of furniture that you will be proud of for years to come.

Types of Housekeeping Budget

Budgeting set-up depends on the function of the hotel or facility. A hotel or facility can be smaller or larger scale operated. The larger they are the more complex it gets.

In a smaller scale hotel or facility usually there is Front Office, Housekeeping and Maintenance and the expenses are controlled mainly by the Owner through the General Manager. They were the key decision maker in preparing the yearly budget with the assistance of an accountant or accounting firm. The budgeted amount needed to operate for the whole year is based on the expenses incurred on the previous years and other related occasions that will affect the preparation of budget for the coming year.


In a larger scale hotel, expenses can be very complicated since the operation varies from the departments created for the smooth operation of the hotel. Some international hotels, the budget is being prepared by each department head through the assistance of the Financial Controller and General Manager then submitted to the owner/ corporation for approval. Once sanctioned, each department head is then held accountable in ensuring that the budget allocated is monitored and controlled based on the occupancy percentage. The General Manager gets a copy of the results of the budget every end of the month and discusses them with the department head.

Types of Housekeeping Budget

Example of departments in a larger scale hotel are: Administration, Front Office, Housekeeping, Laundry, Engineering, Food & Beverage, Kitchen, Finance, Human Resources, Recreation and any other departments created to suit the function and smooth operation of the hotel. Each of these departments have sub-departments such as Front Office with Reservation and Bell Service/ Concierge; Housekeeping with Laundry, Uniform, Linen, Tailoring, Flower shop, Gardening and Landscaping, Upholstery shop (the latter can be assigned to Engineering as well); Engineering with Carpentry, Masonry, Electrical, Mechanical, Computer Technician etc.; Food & Beverage with Banqueting and Outside Catering; Kitchen with Pastry shop; Finance with Purchasing, Receiving & Storage; Recreation with Swimming Pool, Golf Course, Tennis Courts, Spa etc.; Human Resources with Training and Clinic.

Housekeeping and other departments in the hotel operate within two types of budget. The Operational Budget and the Capital Expenditure Budget.

1) Operational Budget is the allocation of expenses for each item/s required by the department in order to operate smoothly. In case of hotel operation, control of expenses are based on occupancy percentage. The budgeted amount for the month can be variable since there are certain period where occupancy forecasts in other areas or countries are unreliable or unpredictable.

The basic Housekeeping operational budget are as follows:
a) Staffing
b) Linen & Towels
c) Guest Supplies & Amenities
d) Cleaning Supplies
e) Laundry Supplies
f) Machine, Tools & Equipment
g) Decoration
h) Miscellaneous
i) Printing and stationeries

There are budgeted item/s or sections in Housekeeping that are usually divided between other departments such as follows:

1) Repairs and Maintenance

This type of operational budget is usually divided between housekeeping and Engineering

2) Uniform Budget

Uniform expenses is prepared by the Executive Housekeeper with all the elegance, comfort, durability, styles, colors and functionality of the uniform chosen for each department. Once a specific style of uniform has been chosen, it is then coordinated with the concern department and when the Executive Housekeeper gets the approval she then submits them to the General Manager for overall coordination of styles, colors, functionality etc. that reflects the proper image perception of the entire hotel in the eyes of the guests. The last step will be to endorse them to the Financial Controller for allocation of budgeted amount to each department.

3) Decoration

Housekeeping is one of the department in the hotel which helps and assists in the beautification of the hotel inside and outside the building. Decoration can be flower arrangements, fresh and artificial depending on the policy of the hotel since there are hotels that prohibit the use of artificial flower arrangements for fire hazard issue, picture frames, statuary, carvings, tapestry, artifacts and many others are examples of decorations. Requests for flower arrangements seemed to be the most needed items in the hotel whether for the guestrooms, Food and Beverage functions, Outside Catering, Lobby of the hotel, Convention centers and other areas that requires flower arrangements.

4) Printing and Stationeries

Front Office and Housekeeping are the two departments that share this budget.

5) Miscellaneous

This type of budget can be charged between Housekeeping and any other department depending on what type of expenses is incurred.

The second type of Housekeeping budget is Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)

Capital Expenditure Budget is the allocation of funds for a specific project or items that will help and assist the operation of the hotel. In case of Housekeeping, projects can be something that require replacement or additional Housekeepers cart, Laundry washer & dryer, building a new Laundry Shop for outside customers, replacement of vacuum cleaners, replacement of worn out beds or furnitures which is usually done floor by floor or by segments. Usually the CAPEX fund is allocated same way as how the operational budget has been allocated for the coming year. Therefore on a yearly basis project/s is/are accomplished and completed especially if the item/s have specific life span where replacement are made specifically each year. This way the hotel or facility is well maintained, equipped and preserved like new. It is through CAPEX fund that maintenance of the hotel works best and at the same time avoiding depreciation of items in large quantities where it is difficult to resolve since they require huge amount to achieve.

Therefore in order to have a smooth operating and well maintained hotel or facility, it is important that allocation of funds for the operational needs and maintenance of the hotel should be handled and monitored effectively based on occupancy percentage where key department heads are knowledgeable on how to adjust their budget accordingly. Key Personnel responsible for the preparation of the budget should see to it that the allocated fund is spent specifically for what it is intended for. Side tracking the set goal will be an unending tasks that won't have a definite or specific achievement accomplished. Not being able to monitor the operating budget effectively will lead to the demise of Capital Expenditure.

Capital Expenditure Budget is as important as Operating Budget when it comes to hotel business.

Types of Housekeeping Budget

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Understanding Louis XV Antique Furniture

Period History:

Louis XV was the grandson of King Louis XIV and ruled France between 1715 and 1774. He is most commonly known for being one of France's most unpopular kings. During his reign, he managed to upset almost every social group in his country, yet surprisingly, in its own exclusive way, that segregation from his people has led to the Louis XV period antique furniture being some of the most sought after French furniture in the world.


Due to the unbalance of his country, the remaining Louis XV furniture is seen as a great treasure that heralds from a time of grave public unrest in France and symbolises the determination of its people as a whole but, in particular, in its furniture designers to continue to inspire, create and deliver a legacy of beautiful, intricate and detailed furniture which remains to this day a coveted style of design.

Understanding Louis XV Antique Furniture

For all the things that went wrong with Louis XV's reign as King of France, one thing that is undeniable is the detailed quality of the furniture that rose from this dark time in France's history to reer a head of something quite the opposite, both elegant and flowing, in a time of bleak misery.

What Makes Louis XV Furniture Louis XV Furniture?

There are a number of tell-tale design characteristics that articulate this style of design. It is quite common to hear or see pieces of furniture incorrectly described as Louis XV, when in actual fact, they are Louis XIV. What separates the two is actually quite distinctive, and I'll list them below.

Louis XV Furniture is:

  • Designed more curvaciously
  • Free flowing forms and shapes
  • Not made with straight lines, straight cuts or anything that looks angular
  • Intricately carved and seemingly infinitely detailed
  • Hand painted
  • Shells tend to form the focul points of each design
  • Symbolic of romance, sensuality and love
  • Light and graceful

Louis XV Furniture is not:

  • Reliant on presence to state its claim, such as Gothic Furniture
  • Made with straight cuts
  • Big, bulky or angular
  • Strong and masculine
  • Machine painted
  • Machine cut

You will find that Louis XIV furniture is quite the opposite in style to Louis XV, and where I've listed the points above that are not associated with Louis XV, you will tend to find these same characteristics present in Louis XIV furniture, for example, it will be more angular and less graceful, more inline with a masculine strength of style than a graceful, romantic wisp as seen in Louis XV furniture. It is a very common mistake, most probably due to the similarities in name, but it is vital when identifying your antique furniture to get the periods correct as unsurprisingly, it can cause chaos for the buyer at auction!

The next problem I tend to see quite often in my field is misselling replicas as originals.

Identifying Real Louis XV Antique Furniture

Yes, as sad as it is, there will always be those amongst us who feel the need to misrepresent antiques for personal gain by selling copies or replicas. When buying antiques, especially online, make sure to use a respected reseller, such as LJR Windwake & Sons, or a seller who specialises in your desired style, in this case, a Louis XV Antique Furniture Specialist. It is vitally important to be utterly scrupulous when buying antiques online at auction sites or dealers, but fortunately, I have some good tips on how to make sure that the piece of furniture you're buying is the real deal.

1. Ask for Details on How the Cupboard was Made

Make sure you ask the seller to explain to you how the piece was made, making sure to get him to describe to you the joints in the wood. If they are visible, and keep in mind that the joinery of an 'antique' would not be machine cut but would in actual fact be hand cut, ask him to describe them to you. Chances are that hand cut joints will be rougher and perhaps not as exact as machine cut joints, which should be a good indication of originality and the antique you are buying is actually an 'antique' and not something that was knocked off a production line in ShenZhen, China, 2006.

The best way to find a cut is to remove a draw and have a close look at where the front and back of the drawer are fastened to the sides of the drawer. If a joint was made by hand, it would be dovetailed and have only a few dovetail joints, and they wouldn't be precisely even. If the dovetails are close together and precisely cut, it will have been machine-cut. Handmade dovetails almost always indicate a piece made before 1860.

2. Look for Imperfections such as Nicks and Cuts

Another great way to help identify the validity of an antique or hand-made piece of furniture would be to look closely for nicks and cuts on the back, sides and bottom of the draw. Nicks and cuts usually indicate a hand operated tool was used to plane, shave or cut the wood. Straight cuts, the kind you'd get from a straight saw, are also good signs whereas cuts that look circular in appearance mean that the cut was made with a circular saw, again not in use until after 1860.

3. Exact Symmetry? No way!

This is probably the easiest tell tale sign of machine made furniture compared to hand made. If something looks exactly symmetrical, chances are its been cut by machines, so make sure you request lots of pictures of the piece of furniture you're buying.

4. Ask for a Detailed Description of the Finish

The style of finish is also a great way of identifying the age of a piece of Louis XV. Certain finishes were in use in different periods which is an excellent way to identify the age of your antique furniture. For Louis XV, it should all be hand painted. Hand painting is often identifiable by slight imperfections in brush strokes or edges, although some of the finest Louis XV won't show any signs of human error, because the quality was so high, it is always advisable to ask for pictures of all paintwork, especially so for imperfections as these can actually ADD to the value of your furniture.

5. Make Sure the Seller Explains the type of Wood used in Manufacture

This is often a simple method of gauging an age because generally, as a rule of thumb, anything before 1700 was made from oak, 1700 onwards (our Louis XV era), mahogany and walnut were the choice woods. if its pine, it normally indicates an American furniture piece and is normally indicative of slightly cheaper works. The really valuable, old antique Louis XV treasures will be made from mahogany or walnut.


Always be careful when buying antique furniture but if you are thinking of buying, make sure you arm yourself with as much research as possible prior to attending auction houses. It is also very advisable to go to an auction with a particular object in mind. Visit the open days, make your notes, go home and research what you've seen and then attend the auctions with renewed knowledge about your purchase and always, always try to get as much information out of the seller as possible, whether buying online or at an auction house.

Understanding Louis XV Antique Furniture

Information about the Author:

Lee Rushworth is the founder of Sunderland based White Knight Projects Ltd., an investment company who specialise in helping new companies launch their products and services online with new business start up advice, web design sunderland and strategic and financial support. If you are looking to get help starting your new business and are based in the UK, have a good product idea and an insatiable drive to succeed, contact Lee at to see what support or investment you could get.

Assemble it Yourself Ikea Furniture

Ikea is private company that sells and distributes home products that are low priced with a twist, you put them together yourself. This concept has taken Ikea to the forefront as a leader in the industry since 1943 when they were created by founder Ingvar Kamprad in Sweden. Ikea furniture is very well known for its modern design and easy to assemble design which saves consumer money from having the pre assembled models shipped.

One big example of this is having a bookcase shipped pre assembled costs a lot more than having one that you assembled shipped. One of the other main reasons as many European's use mass transit which makes it easier for them to transport these products to their homes. This is also very big in the European block, but just finding mild appeal in the United States. This could change as they open more stores and introduce the concept more to American's. There are currently only 33 Ikea stores in the United States so getting this type of furniture has been tough for most.


Having to assemble furniture is nothing new for American's as many products today state some assembly required. The biggest problem with Ikea is there just aren't enough stores around for them to make a bigger impact just yet. Some of the products they offer are garden furniture, coffee tables, bookshelves, hall furniture, dining tables, children's items and so forth. One of the biggest things that it has confronted is a society such as the United States that values their time and hate putting things together. This could explain the slow growth in the United States. The other big reason they have probably struggled is how they have their corporate structure. It's designed in a way to avoid taxes by funneling profits to a nonprofit organization which in the United States would be watched very carefully. I think this could have a lot to do with their slow growth as well.

Assemble it Yourself Ikea Furniture

The Ikea concept has worked well in European countries where an assembly thing is something they are use to and actually enjoy doing. Ikea products are well designed and available in a catalog if you so desire to order any products. They have a vast collection of items at good prices. In the future we may see more of these stores being built as demand for their products grow. The demand for quality furniture priced reasonably has always been something everyone is interested in.

Assemble it Yourself Ikea Furniture

Jeffrey Meier at Jam727 Enterprises at blog offers even more detailed information on a wide variety of topics.

Mango Wood Furniture - Beautiful Furniture Made From Sustainable Wood

The mango tree is prevalent throughout Southeast Asia and while it may be best known for its sweet tasting fruit, the mango tree is also a fast growing and sustainable source of lumber. Its fast growth and the ease with which it can be worked make it an inexpensive and useful source of material for the manufacture of quality cabinets and other items of furniture. The heartwood of the mango, in particular, can be used to create beautiful mango wood furniture and may be light brown, dark brown, or even pinkish in colour.

Sustainable Wood


The UK's increased thirst for sustainable materials has led to a similar increase in the use of mango wood as a furniture base. The mango tree can grow to a height of between 80ft and 100ft with a trunk diameter of 3ft to 4ft in very little time so it is a hugely beneficial source of sustainable wood. What's more, the increased prices of popular hardwoods like teak have made alternative sources of workable material even more highly sought after.

Mango Wood Furniture - Beautiful Furniture Made From Sustainable Wood

What To Watch For

Unfortunately, while the tree is not an endangered species, the heartwood can be prone to fungal attack so it is important that wood is checked and treated before being crafted into a piece of fine furniture. Good retailers will ensure that the wood is properly treated before being displayed and sold.

Furniture Styles And Finishes

Mango furniture can be bought in a variety of shades and finishes. The heartwood is the section of the tree that is used in the manufacture of cabinets and other furniture and this section of the mango tree can change dramatically in colour depending on where the tree was grown and even the season in which it was felled. Light and dark brown mango wood furniture has great appeal and tinges of light pinks and other colours may also be prominent.

Mango Wood Furniture

The range of mango wood furniture available is equally impressive. The wood is a hardwood but is one of the softer variants so can be worked well and easily. Some unique pieces of mango wood furniture incorporate both light and dark wood in order to create an even better looking finish. Almost all types of furniture are available in mango wood. Cabinets for the TV and home entertainment equipment are popular because the wood holds up very well to polishing and treating giving it a fine finish. Its strength and robustness also make it an ideal material for the creation of mango wood furniture like beds, chairs, and even tables.

Mango Wood Furniture - Beautiful Furniture Made From Sustainable Wood

Mango wood furniture [] looks set to become one of the most popular home decor ranges thanks to its varied colours and ease of workmanship. The tree itself is believed by many Asian cultures to signify good fortune and to represent safety. Whether this is true or not, mango furniture is great looking and created using sustainable non-endangered wood.

Removing Skunk Odor From Furniture

Skunks are wonderful little creatures that have a big impact on the environments they live in. For the most part, these black and white critters go about their business, causing no one but known pests a problem. Unfortunately, they sometimes have run ins with people, pets or even living room furniture if they manage to get into a home personally.

When removing skunk odor from furniture is necessary, there are some tips that can help ensure the job results in success. The best ideas for handling skunk odor on furniture include:


  • Make sure the contaminated creature or the contaminating creature is isolated and cleaned or gone before proceeding. There is little point in trying to get skunk odors out of furniture if the cat or dog that rolled on a sofa is still skunk smelling and present. Clean up the creature or get the skunk out of the house and then proceed.
  • Carefully inspect all furniture that may have come in contact with the skunk. The idea is to not have to clean more than is necessary without missing anything that is.
  • Gently blot up any wet spots. If the spray is fresh or a wet dog or cat just rolled on the furniture, spreading the skunk smell around, blot it up. Do not scrub to avoid working it further into the fabrics.
  • Get an extracting machine if possible. Go to a hardware or grocery store and rent an extraction machine for cleaning fabric furniture. This will help pull the odor-causing skunk spray out of the furniture rather than pushing it further into the fabric.
  • If an extractor is not possible, consider getting a bag of clean rags or other cleaning cloths that can be tossed in the trash when the job is done.
  • Select the solution. Whether it's an extraction machine with an upholstery wand or a hand clean up and blot job on tap, the right odor neutralizing agents are necessary. Some people prefer using baking soda and vinegar on furniture; others like the idea of using gentle sodas or professional cleaning agents. No matter the option, have plenty of the chosen solution on hand. Getting skunk smells out of furniture takes a bit of time and even several applications. If a trip to a store is in order, consider also picking up feminine cleaning products (these work well on skunk odors, too) and/or odor neutralizing sprays for fabrics for the follow up job.
  • Clean, extract or soak and blot. This particular part of the process might take several applications and some time to work. With diligence and the right follow up neutralizer, it should pay off.

Removing Skunk Odor From Furniture

As you can see, removing skunk odor is a task that can be accomplished. With the right tools and a bit of elbow grease, a couch, chair or even entire living room can be salvaged.

Removing Skunk Odor From Furniture

Gretchen Messersmith is the owner of Skunk Odor Gone, the website that shows you step-by-step how to quickly and easily get rid of skunk odor for good. Because of her own personal experience in this area, she is passionate about helping people remove skunk smell safely, quickly and easily.

Cat sprayed by skunk? Find out some simple steps to remove skunk smell from your cat.

Common Errors With Nouns And Noun Phrases

Expressions that take singular verbs

Some common expressions take singular verbs even though they may contain a plural noun. Examples are: bacon and eggs; cheese and biscuits; fish and chips etc.


Bacon and eggs was served for breakfast.

Common Errors With Nouns And Noun Phrases

Where is the cheese and biscuits?

Fish and chips is popular in England.

Nouns that do not have a plural form

Not all nouns have a plural form: for example, furniture, wheat, dust, news, advice, information, luggage, bread, trouble and scenery normally have only a singular form.

The scenery here is good. (NOT The sceneries here are good.)

I have lost my furniture. (NOT ... my furnitures.)

We have received no information. (NOT ... no informations)

He told his mother this news. (NOT ... these news)

There is no bread in this shop. OR There are no loaves in this shop. (NOT There are no breads in this shop.)

Please excuse me for the trouble I have caused. (NOT ... for the troubles I have caused.)

I am learning a new poem. (NOT ... a new poetry)

A plural noun that names a single subject

When a group of words containing a plural noun represents a single subject, you must use a singular verb.

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is my favourite novel.

The Crusades is a book that comes in two volumes.

Memories of the War is worth reading.

Robert Louis Stevenson's books are always exciting.

Collective nouns

Collective nouns take a singular verb if you are talking of the group as a whole. They take a plural verb if you are talking about individuals within the group.


The team is on the field.

The team are changing.

The class is a bright one.

The class are a mixed lot.

His family is living in that house.

His family are living in various parts of Sydney.

The jury is in the courtroom.

The jury are still debating the case.

Pants and trousers

Pants means underclothes covering the upper part of the leg. Trousers means outer garment for the legs, reaching from waist to ankles.

Students should wear white trousers. (NOT ... white pants)

Theatre, play and drama

A theatre is a building in which plays are acted, not the play itself. Drama is rarely used nowadays in the sense in which foreign students are likely to use it, that is to say to mean a play, whether acted by professionals or amateurs.

We saw a play. (NOT We saw a theatre.)

We like acting plays. (NOT we like taking part in drama)

Man and gentleman

Gentleman is a difficult word to use correctly in colloquial English. Use the term when you are referring to a man's character.

He is a real gentleman. (Praising him)

He is not a gentleman. (Criticizing him)

Use man to denote an adult of the male sex.

He is a tall man.

Lady and woman

Woman is the usual word to denote an adult of the female sex. It is quite polite. 'She is a lady' means that she is a woman of particularly good birth, breeding and taste.

I saw two women. (NOT I saw two females)


The word dress is generally used with reference to women's attire.

He was wearing a new suit. (NOT He was wearing a new dress)

But note that we do say 'a man in full dress' or 'evening dress'.


The English language uses relatively loose terms to express relationships. Aunt means the sister of either father or mother. Uncle means the brother of either father or mother. Cousin means any child of any aunt or uncle.

He is my cousin. (NOT He is my cousin brother)

Common Errors With Nouns And Noun Phrases

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Stag Furniture

Stag furniture is no longer made, but there is a huge following for secondhand Stag pieces. Stag produced some innovative furniture in the 50s, 60s and 70s. Today Stag's Minstrel furniture has a strong following with buyers eagerly searching eBay for pieces to complete their collection.

Stag was one of the first English furniture makers to go contemporary in the early 50s. They employed husband and wife team, John and Sylvia Reid, to design the cutting edge 'C' range of bedroom furniture. The new look was minimalist in the extreme, handles were abolished in favour of recessed grips. The wardrobe was only decorated by a mirror. The 'C' range looked stark and initially sales were slow. However, as the public became more used to contemporary design it became a winner for Stag.


John and Sylvia Reid's association with Stag continued. Their next project was Madrigal. It was a range of furniture inspired, not by modern design, but by the past. Madrigal was meant to replace Stag's aging 'A' range of traditional furniture. However, it was not a great success.

Stag Furniture

Stag's Chairman, Vaughn Radford, still had faith in John and Sylvia Reid. Their next range for Stag became the best selling range of British furniture of all time. John and Sylvia Reid continued to look to the past for inspiration and developed Madrigal into Minstrel.

Minstrel was an evolution from Madrigal. It was inspired by the elegance of eighteenth century furniture, but reinterpreted for the modern world. Stag Minstrel furniture was made from makore (or African Cherry). It was of similar appearance to Madrigal, but had new, simpler brass ring handles. These and the simple design make Minstrel instantly recognisable.

The Reid's design was complemented by Vaughn Radford's commercial skill. He was able to buy
makore in huge quantities meaning that no other manufacturer could make anything similar in terms of quality for the same price.

The key ingredient to Minstrel's success was timing. At its launch in 1964, the initial buzz around contemporary design was fading. Contemporary was not to everyone's taste, even in the 50s. Minstrel combined the convenience of modern design with the elegance of antique furniture. It was not a direct reproduction, but captured the essence of antique style with a modern look. Minstrel was a marketing and design triumph.

Minstrel remained in production for nearly forty years and was Stag's most successful range. Today it has a strong following with many buyers looking to eBay to update their collections and to search out those elusive pieces they did not manage to get at the time.

For more about Stag read my main feature and buying guide Stag furniture

Stag Furniture

Steven Braggs is the co-author of 'The G-Plan Revolution' with Basil Hyman, published by Booth Clibborn Editions. He is also the founder of, a web site about retro style and the 50s, 60s, 70s and 80s.